WASTE MANAGEMENT DISPOSAL REPORT DATA ANALYSIS
April 4, 2017
Produced by: Sao Dalin, Phim David, Sim Kanha,
Long Mengthong, Sovann Rathanak, Ses Vonsar,
Hor Samnang, Pich Sovannou, Saosuo Visal,
Hong Rithy, Khom Seyha, Oun Sreyneang,
Edited by: Tony G.
Facilitator: Keith Simpson
Table of Content
The purpose this report is to help the Cleaning up Archetype for Kids & Environment (CAKE) project to be more sustainable by exploring the possibility of creating a trash collecting service. This report has been written by 12 students from the Liger Learning Center, Phnom Penh. Before writing the report, we took surveys to understand the villagers in those communities. After that, the data was analysed to determine whether we recommend the CAKE project start their business. Additionally, we will recommend how should the project begin and what things that CAKE should be aware of.
On March 2th, 2017, our waste management group interviewed 127 people in Khsach and Arey Ksat villages that CAKE already serves. Most importantly, throughout three-fourths of the community’s members surveyed do want to have this trash collecting service since they are facing some problems with the trash and time management. Based on the survey, there are more than 50% of the families in the community take their trash to CAKE’s disposal bins which 61.5% of the families stated that it is near their houses. But still some other families think that the bin is too far from their house therefore they villagers decided to throw the trash anywhere. Organic waste is the second-leading waste in the Arey Ksat community, most of the villagers are throwing organic waste away without thinking about its benefit. A lot of families mentioned that the trash that they burn are mostly leaves, organic waste like vegetable and fruit peels. We want to try a business with the rule of separating waste but it would very hard for the villagers since it is a new practice that they have not started. To change people’s behavior we need to be able to make people think carefully about separating the waste. Almost 90% of the villagers are willing to separate their trash if the service lower the price.
Most families responded that they use motorcycle to transport their trash to the CAKE’s bin thus the disadvantage for this is that they have to pay extra money for the gasoline. In the community 38% of the people did not know what to do with the trash that can be recycled and the majority of them (81%) demand for some activities to educate them to understand more about trash recycling.
Little Hearts is a non-profit organization located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The intention of the organization is to help poor Cambodian children who are living in the rural areas of Cambodia. The organization started in 2009 with 100 kids from different places. Currently, the organization is working together with their community in a project called CAKE (Cleaning up Archetype for Kids & Environment). CAKE is a six-month program, working on connecting with the people in their community to get them to put their waste into the right spot and not throw on the road. This program was created by Tony Geeraerts, the founder of the Little Hearts organization in Arey Ksat community, Cambodia. This program is run for collecting waste from different villages such as Arey Ksat, Khsach, Portom and Tuolmeas community. The project has been very successful; their team has been talking to their community and encouraging them to throw their plastic and all types of waste into the disposal bins that the program has provided.
However, the CAKE program is scheduled to last for 6 months, to continue this program, it has to be funded by its activities. The CAKE program is ending its 6- month pilot program. During this pilot, they have found that the project would not be sustainable long-term as it was run in the 6 months, due to their expenses. Money has been flowing out more and more since they need to work with CINTRI to help them in taking the trash from their community. CAKE needs to find ways to get the funds to continue this program. Their project is collected all kinds of waste including plastic and organic waste. To keep this program running, they need workers to collect the waste from their target for example market, schools , pagodas, public streets, houses and others different places. Their team had been reaching out to different people and community chief in collaborating in the project. Their posters and signs about the effect on throwing rubbish are everywhere in the community, the signs are to remind the people in the community to not throwing trash away and exclaimed the impact of using the plastics.
Currently, CAKE is fully-funded by an organization called Little Hearts. in order to keep this program running, our team had reached out to their community and looking at their project. We are a group of students from the Liger Learning Center school (LLC), also we are a group of student learning about Waste Management business. For the past 20 weeks, our project has been about studying and creating a waste collecting service. Instead of starting our own business, we are trying to help CAKE because CAKE plays an important role to Cambodia which helps Cambodia have a healthier environment by collecting waste from the villagers.
March 28th, 2017
All out survey day in the district of Arey Ksat And first collaboration day between Liger and Little Hearts.
12 Liger students were joined by 7 students from Little Heart and were on a hunt for answers and suggestions for the new business plan that will comply to help sustain the CAKE projects, which helps the community to reduce and clean the environment. There were 20 interview questions which were a mix of open-ended and close-ended questions. The questions are divided into three sections: Current Situation, About Trash and Possible Service. Current Situation questionnaires are such as name, age and current place the interviewee live. About Trash questionnaires are questions about general information, about family trash and how do they handle with it. Possible Service questionnaires are mostly talking about feedback on the idea of creating the garbage pick up service. The Liger students was divided into two big groups and joined by the Little Heart students, then the two group breakdown to a total of six groups. The target was to interview 120 people, one for each person in the community. After first two hours of interviews we reached fifty percent of our target. All teams interviewed many different variety of people, but the mostly encountered middle-aged people and old people. We are really looking forward to working and collaborating with Little Hearts to help and change Cambodia.
Question 1: Where are you from?
Out of 130 responses 71 .5% of them are coming from Arey Ksat village while 28.5% were interviewed in Khsach village. The reason that this data were only interviewed in these two villages because this is where CAKE think people would demand for the trash collecting service and it is located on the main road. The data tells us that if CAKE wants to start this start up, these two locations are good for them to start first.
Question 2: How old are you?
The pie chart shows that 44.9% of the interviewees are in the age around 25 to 44 years old. Which clearly explains that the conducting survey is functional because those people are at the age of responsible for the family’s payment.
Question 3: How many members in your family?
|Family members||The percentages compare to other.|
In this data shows that more than 43 percents of people that live in Khsach and Arey Ksat village have family that have above five members. To make the business have more income and lower the expense, CAKE should decide the pricing by how many members are in the family but remember one thing, in the families that have a lot of members usually are having the problem with cash. If we assume that the CAKE project work with 1200 families and the cost of people who have 5 members or below cost 1 dollar and more than five members 1.5 dollars the CAKE project will make about 300 dollars more than the same price cost 1 dollar for every family.
Question 4: How many garbage do you generate a day? (1bag = 2kg)
Regarding to the data that shown above, we can inferred that about 70% of families that add up from the data collection above, in Arey Ksat and Ksach village are throwing 4 kg of trash every day. In each day the trash are being produced around 212 kg from 82 families. Based on this number, we can ensure that this data means that they do not need the service to pick up the trash for them everyday but possibly they need for 3 times a week. Different household and local businesses normally produced around 2-4 kg of trash everyday. However for the bigger business like restaurants, markets or factories usually produced around 12 kg of trash everyday. This are huge number of waste that had been produced everyday. In conclusion, the data above shows that currently people are producing so much waste, which can give a lot of negative impact to their communities, families and themselves, so people are needed to consider more about what they should be doing with their waste.
Question 5: How do you currently handle your trash?
In relation to the data above, about 53.9% of the families in the community are taking their trash to the disposal place (@CAKE’s bin), for the CAKE workers to collect and transfer it to Phnom Penh. As stated above, this data means that people in Arey Ksat and Ksach village are rearranging their trash and putting into the right spot. While 53.9% of the families are throwing their trash into the disposal bin, there are still 37.5% of families who are continuing to burning their trash. 130 families had been interviewed and 48 of them are still burning their trash; this is a problem! These are the two main strategies that the villagers there are using it as their big way to dispose their trash. Moreover, there are still people who do not care about their village and think about their community. 1.6% of the families are still throwing their trash everywhere. This is another problem, even though this is a small percentage out of the whole data but it is important to inform everyone in the whole community to not throw the rubbish everywhere because it is not the solution to throw away waste. But in order to change the that number, the community should be helping and supporting each other.
Question 6: How far do you need to travel to throw your rubbish?
Acceding to the interview, around 61.5% of the families said that the place where they dump their trash is close to their home. Other ways that they can dump their trash beside dump it into the disposal bin (CAKE) are like burning, burying or throwing it everywhere whenever they need to. Moreover 9% of the families said that the place where they can throw the trash away is far from their home. This is the main problem regarding the place that they throw their trash. Furthermore, a lot of families mentioned that the trash that they burnt are mostly leaves, organic waste like vegetable and fruit peel because if they keep it at their home it will smell. However, for the plastic and bottle, they normally throw it into the CAKE bins or sell to the buyers who will buy it for their own business. Since 61.5% of the families are close to the disposal bin, but CAKE need to also be ensure that the bin will also reached to the 9% of families who are not close to the bin.
Question 7: What is your transportation of throwing your trash?
This shows that over 46% of the population that we interviewed in Arey Ksat use their motorbikes just to transport their trash to CAKE’s bin. There are over 22% of the people we interviewed use no transportation (walking). Currently there are some disadvantages to people who use motorcycles, for example they used money for gasoline, and time for transport to the trash bin. Right now, they already spending their money on their waste collection. So if this business happens in this area, it will possibly help people save their time and money on gasoline .
Question 8: How do you feel about your community right now?
Referencing to the responses of the interviewed, 92% of the people think that their community is getting better and better, and 7.2% think the community is just normal, and only one person (0.8%) thinks their community is polluted. Moreover, the momentum in understanding of organizing their waste are getting better and better this mean they already stay at the stage of controlling their trash. Then, if the trash collecting service start and they separate their waste it will be efficient for them to follow that requirement. Generally, the survey does help us understand more about the CAKE project that it is worthwhile, the communities are clean and people’s behavior start to change (it is hard to change people’s behavior). On other hand, if the collecting trash service start the business here then it will have a high probability of success because most of the people already can control their wastes.
Question 9: According to you living around this area, which type of waste you see the most?
|62.5% is Plastic||50.8% is vegetables and fruits||4% others waste like leave and grass|
According to the data, plastic is still leading in the Arey Ksat community if we compare to others type of waste like the organic waste. This means plastic still bring villagers diseases because of burning and living near them. So to start a business with the rule of separate waste is hard for the villagers because they still have a bad behavior of mixing both plastic and organic waste. So to change people’s behavior CAKE need to have some pricing that can make people think carefully about separate the waste. To reduce the waste, CAKE can have a workshop for kids and adults to recycle plastic into a usable product like cups, pencil holders and etc. Organic waste is the second leading waste in the Arey Ksat community, most of the villagers are throwing organic waste away without thinking about its benefit. To reduce the organic waste, CAKE can have a workshop with the villagers and they can explain how to make compost and how to use it.
Question 10: Do you ever separate your waste?
|36.3% of the total people separate their waste, which is 45 people
59.7% of the total people do not separate their waste, which is 74 people
4% of the total people have problems with separating their waste, which is 5 people
The data clearly shows that separating waste is a little new to the villager, most of them will need to change their habit and behavior. CAKE could try to educate them and they can encourage them by lowering the price so they get some benefit from separate waste.
Question 11: If CAKE tell you to separate waste and CAKE will discount your payment, will you separate your waste?
| 86.4% agree to separate waste
7.6% not agree to separate waste
6% Depend on people live around them
This data shows, most of the people at the Arey Ksat community agree to separate the waste between organic and plastic, if CAKE lowers the price of our service. Some villagers did not want the service because they took their waste and throw it in the CAKE rubbish bin. And others throw and burnt it away even though it is not good for the environment. This means people are willing to use a business if CAKE reduce the price for separate the waste into the right order.
Question 12: What is the time you usually throw your waste away?
According to the percentages from the pie chart, about 37.7% of people were throwing their trash in the CAKE bin or somewhere depends on when their trash is full; about 35.2% of people wanted to keep the trash until evening so that it is easier to throw at once without leaving a bad smell overnight; 54.1% (from 37.7% plus 16.4%) of the people do not mind to keep the trash overnight, which means they do not need the trucks to pick their trash every day. Overall, people do not want to throw their waste frequently is because they can not make their time from their important work or they do not mind about the atmosphere at their resident.
Question 13: What do you do with the trash that can be recycled?
In this question we have three answers choices, Collected, Unnecessary and Other. 32.1% of the interviewees were choosing Collected. 38.4% were choosing unnecessary and 29.5% were choosing other. What they do with the trash that can be recycled is collect to sell or make it into useful things. But others just throw it the bin or buried it.
Question 14: Do you wish to have the recycling activities in your village?
To connect to the question 13, we asked our interviewees have they ever thought of having recycling activity in their village. What we got for our responses is 81.1% wanted to have the activity and 18.9% never think of that before. We got only 62 responses from why do they think about having the activities. 11% of them have said they have no idea, and about 91% of them give us back the positive response. The most likely positive responses are they want a healthy environment and it is a very beneficial. For the interviewees that say no to this question because they have the idea that CAKE cannot use the things that been thrown out already.
Question 15: Why do you expect to have the recycling activities?
In Arey Ksat and Kasach, there is a high percentage of people in the community are expecting to have a project that will educate them about recycling plastic. Their opinion are mainly wanted their community to be clean with good atmosphere all around, such as help to clean the community, try to use alternative solution, start to recycle stuffs (like decorate their room by plastic). Their intent was to prepare for their kids future. Also, as the community is developing, they want their community views to be enhanced.
Question 16: Do you want or need a service to collect your trash?
As a result about ¾ of the amount of the people we interviewed demand a trash collecting service, to compare to the whole community there would be around 935 (out of 1,270) families that would be interested in this service. This shows that there is a strong demand for a service like this and it has a chance to be a successful start up since 76% of the people wants a service like this.
Question 17: How much money are you willing to pay for the service each month?
Based on the data, about 37% of the people are willing to pay the service an amount that depends on their waste; also they are willing to pay what their neighbors pay as the service sets the price. It needs to be reasonable to certain families, especially for those who are poor. Overall, there are around 60% of the people who want the service to be inexpensive and reasonable depending on their family situation.
Question 18: How often should the service come and collect the trash?
The result demonstrates that around 60% of the people wants the service to either collect the trash every day or three days a week. The service needs to pick in between three to six days a week so that the majority of people will be happy. Also the service should consider the dates that works best for everyone.
Question 19: Where do you want the service to go and collect the trash?
The data has clearly reflected that 80% of the people wants the service to collect the trash personally at their houses. The service should understand that by doing this more people will be happy with them since CAKE are helping to make their life easier and that is how they make it sustainable.
Good Demand for Garbage Service
We recommend that CAKE should expand their project and start charging for garbage collection and keep sending trash to CINTRI as a first step. We do not support the idea of handling their own trash disposal because their expense will be very large at this stage. Nevertheless, according to the survey, the percent of villagers agree to use our waste service are high (75.4%) since they do not have to spend their time riding their own vehicle to throw their rubbish. The response from our survey is only 37% of respondents have no idea how much to pay for garbage collection, and believe it is up to the service decision or group decision. Therefore, there is a chance to put a higher price than CINTRI service like $2 per household. The survey was unclear on deciding what price should customers pay. However, many people desire the cost to be $1, which we can offer a deal of 50% off a price of $2 if the community separates different types of waste like organic and plastic. Interestingly, more than half of the people (60%) want the service to collect the waste every day or three days per week and 80% of community’s members want the service to collect the trash by their house individually.
Pricing advantage from CINTRI – Expansion of Area
As stated earlier, we can assume that CAKE has a pricing advantage from CINTRI because they charge the same price, no matter how much trash they remove. In order to have an advantage, CAKE should look to find more customers as much as possible and increase the area that they serve .
Possible Compost Business in Future
Furthermore, organic waste is the second leading waste in the Arey Ksat and Ksach community, most of the villagers are throwing organic waste away without thinking about its benefit. To reduce the organic waste we can also have a workshop with the villagers and they can explain what compost is and how to use it CAKE can implement an idea of making compost to sell to farmers which is a chance to gain more income and pay off the cost of transporting waste to Cintri. In surveys done in Phum Champous-Kaek near the Liger School, farmers said they would pay about 2,000 riel a kilo for compost
In order, to complete these ideas, CAKE needs to have more workers and perhaps adding more expense at the initial point. Finally, they can collaborate with village chief to help and report the problem that villagers are facing and to control the condition in the village to be sustainable.
Future Revenue Projection
Different household and local businesses normally produced around 2-4 kg of trash every day. However, for the bigger business like restaurants, markets or factories usually produced around 12 kg of trash every day. CAKE had spend about $7500 each month in the project to continue it that is about $2500 on cintri to take waste, $1600 on taking wastes to cintri and the rest on labour/requirement. On this research/survey we have suspect that CAKE need to expand the business even more because there is no telling of the who is the villager participates so the more people the more percentage of success. Following the price structure and the data we have to day CAKE will only make about $3800 per month on collecting waste, if only all of 1200 family join the project.
Here is a possible price structure for the CAKE projects expansion and a projection of the revenue. A similar schedule is used for CINTRI in Battambang province.
|#||Type Khmer Translation||Type English Translation||Cost Per Month||Income|
|2||ផ្ទះល្វែងលើ ចាប់ពីជាក់ទី១ ឡើង||Flat (above ground floor)||$0.50|
|3||ផ្ទះល្វែងក្រោមប្រកបអាជិវកម្ម||Flat (ground floor business making)||$2|
|4||ផ្ទះល្វែងក្រោមប្រកបអាជិវកម្ម ចាប់ពី ០២ ល្វែងឡើង||Two or more Flat (ground floor business making)||$5|
|7||ភូមិគ្រិះ ជួលអោយបរទេស||Mansion for Stay||$10|
|9||ខារ៉ាអូខេ||Bars or Karaoke||$20|
|13||កន្លែងលាងរថយន្ដ និង ម៉ូតូ||Cars, bus, moto, cleaning||$10|
|16||ចំណតរថយន្ដក្រុមហ៊ុន||Transportation stop (Company)||$20|
|17||សណ្ឋាគារ ចាប់ពី ៣០ បន្ទាប់ចុះ||Hostel 30 room or less||$20|
|18||សណ្ឋាគារ ចាប់ពី ៣០ បន្ទាប់ឡើង||Hostel 30 room or more||$20|
|19||ផ្ទះសំណាក់ ចាប់ពី ២០ បន្ទាប់ចុះ||Guesthouse 20 room or less||$50|
|20||ផ្ទះសំណាក់ ចាប់ពី ២០ បន្ទាប់ឡើង||Guesthouse 20 room or more||$10|
|26||ផ្សព្វផ្សាយពាណិជម្មក្រុមហ៊ុន (មួយយប់)||Events per night||$10|
|27||ផ្សារ អ្នកលក់ដូរតាមទីសាធារណៈ||Small shop in Market||$1|
|28||ផ្សព្វផ្សាយពាណិជម្មក្រុមហ៊ុន (មួយយប់)||Events per night||$30|
|29||ផ្សារចាប់ពី ២០០ រ ប្រចាំថ្ងៃក្នុងមុខរបរ
នីមួយៗ និង អ្នកលក់ដូរតាមទីសាធារណៈ
|Small shop in Market||$0.05|
If the service attracts only 75.4% of the household customers in the area CAKE serves, at an average price of $2, then CAKE could gain revenue of about $1,800 per month. If the service gains other types of customers. CAKE can earn enough to cover their expenses at low cost. If CAKE expands their service area or creates new lines of service, it will make it easier to pay for our service.