My First Debate Reflection (To Eat or Not Eat Meat)

Date: Friday, August 31, 2017

Topic: To Eat or Not Eat Meat


To Eat or Not Eat Meat


      So, this is my first debate in English and I’m really anxious to join the event at first. My team and I stand for to continue eating eat. We’ve research and did a lot of talking in order to get ready for the debate. Moreover, we didn’t get to practice with our speech because the time to do the research is too short and we didn’t get a lot of the information. The debate was started, I’m so scared to talk when it was my turn to give a speech because I felt like myself as a low self-esteem person. The debate got so serious and I’m scared to stand up and talk. During the debate some of the students looked furious because of the questions from the other team and the replied messages. Even Though, I didn’t talk a lot but I felt like I’ve got a bunch of experiences and to know more about the debate. If I’ll get a chance to do another debate I will prepare a better speech and to show more of my actions during the debate. One thing that I wish to change is myself, I body always tremble whereever my speech is begin so I would to figure out a way to change this habit.  


Solar Pi Report

STEM Activities Project In Cambodian Secondary Schools Using Solar Powered Computer Labs



Version: 1.1 Updated: 24/Sept/2017

Prepared by: Davith Chan, Sovannary Rith, Maya Yoeung, Sokea Sin, David Phim, Sreypich Khon, Rithy Hong & Chanvattey Leang

Facilitated by: Waseem Girach


Table of Contents

Abstract 4

  1. Introduction 5
  2. Project Purpose/Background 6
  3. Curriculum Development 7

4.1 Primary Curriculum (Edemy) 7

4.2. Experimental Curriculum – FreeCAD 8

4.2.1 Why are We Using FreeCAD? 8

4.2.2 Challenges 8

4.2.3 Teacher Engagement 9

  1. Computer Lab Hardware 10

5.1 Raspberry Pi 11

5.2 Lower Power Consuming Screen 12

5.3 Networking Hardware 13

Our networking software PiNet calls for wired networking, therefore in order to connect all the 23 computers with the server, we need a 24 port network switch [5].The battery consumption of the network switch that we are using is 11.56 watts. 13

5.4 Server Computer 13

5.5 Prototyping Process 14

  1. Wiring of the Lab 15

6.1 Overview of Solar Power Distribution. 15

  1. Solar Power generating system 17

7.1. Solar Panel Sizing 17

7.2. Sizing Sheet Used for Different Period 18

7.2.1 4 Hours of Running 18

7.2.1 8 Hours of Running 18

  1. Network Software to be Used 19
  2. School Engagement 20
  3. Stakeholders 21

10.1. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 21

10.2 Chbar Ampov High School 21

10.3 Edemy 22

10.4 NRG Solutions 22

  1. Costs 23
  2. Fundraising 24
  3. Conclusion 25
  4. Recommendation 26
  5. Reference 28
  6. Appendices 29

Appendix A : Cost sheet for one lab (intention to install two labs) 29

Appendix B : Design System of Solar 30

Appendix C : Sizing sheet used for different period 31

Appendix D : Gantt Chart 32



  • Abstract


This report is organized by sections that will give you more details such as; Fundraising, Curriculum Development and Wiring of the Lab. The goal of this Solar Powered Computer Lab report is to show briefly how does our project is working. Our project is to build two Raspberry Pi computer labs into two government schools by using the power from solar panel. Our project is using the solar panel system because it is self sustaining, which mean after we implemented the computer lab, it could run for years without electricity payment. Moreover, we will have a lot of partnerships with Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, Edemy and other government schools around Cambodia. As stated earlier, we are going to build and implement these Raspberry Pi computers labs into the two government schools that will cost about $30,000 for both the 22 workstation computer labs powered by solar power. Our team still need to find a school to implement the computer lab, and right now we are looking for schools that lack an electricity power source and no computer lab as our target.


2. Introduction

The aim of this project is to install two Solar powered Raspberry Pi computer labs into two Cambodian public schools. We are a group of eight students who are working on this project. This report will outline the hardware used in the labs, the solar systems that will power the lab, the costs to get the project up and running and the various stakeholders involved. This report will be used to give strength to our proposal to the stakeholders that are involved.



3. Project Purpose/Background

According to New York times best-selling author Steven Kotler [1], there is a rise in accessibility to technology today to those in the bottom billion population (poorest populations of the world).  As this bottom billion population continues to develop, technology will also play a big role. We believe that if we increase technology literacy to the bottom billion, we will be able to increase the opportunities for these people to lift themselves out of poverty.  Countries like Cambodia, who are part of the bottom billion, will now have the opportunity to become part of the rising billion with more access to technology. Similar to this idea, our team is now trying to bring new technology which will be powered by solar panels to the public schools that are lacking technology. We have high hopes that this project will bring Cambodians a better future with more opportunities. Moreover, we believe it will give students extra experiences with computers which is advantageous for them to apply for university or college.. We aim to expose public school students to technology, computer science, and 3D design to inspire creativity. Our group believes that we could use technology to empower young cambodians to their full potential.


The government schools are facing problems with lack of technology education and also limited to electricity. Our group wanted the computer labs to run on a solar panel system because it is environmental friendly, lack of electricity source in the government schools, and also self sustaining. Self sustaining is the biggest reason why we wanted a solar panel system because after we implemented the computer lab the school does not need to worry about the payment of their electricity used.



4. Curriculum Development

In order to make sure that the computer labs installed are used thoroughly, we must have a plan for the curriculum that will be taught in conjunction with computer use.

We intend to provide two curriculums with the computer labs, one being an english learning curriculum designed for Khmer speakers, and one teaching 3D design. We believe that acquiring English is one way to increase access to education since the majority of educational content around the world is in English.


We hope our two curriculums will inspire the students’ creativity which we believe must be cultivated in this ever changing world. From our observation, we know that some of the government schools in Cambodia have computer labs, however they are mostly used for typing classes only, so this is a great chance for us to bring brand new technology to them in order to develop their learning style.  We believe 3D Design will be an amazing program for them because it is not only focusing in design 3D models but it also a great learning tools for animation, architecture models, learn how to sketch, and also provide 3D printer skills.

4.1 Primary Curriculum (Edemy)

Edemy stands for English Academy and it is a social enterprise that was founded by Kagnarith Chea [2].  The company’s vision is “to bring a quality English education to people who need it by taking down the barriers of affordability and environment constraints.” Edemy’s program has content for one year which will make sure that our computer lab will be used thoroughly.  The program has a well designed feedback system to monitor progress of the students that are taking the program. Through the computers that are supplied, students will be able to accessable to access the application which will allow them to learn at their own pace. Trained teachers will teach face to face every other day in conjunction with the computer application.  This ensures that the student will have support in their learning, and that there isn’t sole reliance on the software to teach the curriculum. The software can also be installed on students’ phone.. The mobile phone just has to be connected to the server where the content is stored. The app feature is different from the other types of apps. It has a limit time that the students can do the practice and it is mostly multiple choice. Videos and practice content is available on the app. Students will be able to understand about different categories in the app such as Grammar, Pronunciation, Vocabulary, Reading, Listening/Speaking and Writing .


Base on this our teams and the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport had collaborated together in term of finding the right school to installed the computer labs.

4.2. Experimental Curriculum – FreeCAD

4.2.1 Why are We Using FreeCAD?

FreeCAD will provide us an excellent results since it is our main designing software that we are going to install and do experiment with the students. It will shows us the creativity that the students have and what levels that they are in 4 [3]. It is a good software for beginners who want to be involved with mechanical engineering, 2D drawing, editing in 3D and animation. It also helps the users to be more creative and innovative.


We are choosing FreeCAD instead of other designing software because FreeCAD is free and open source and is compatible with the Raspberry Pi system. In order to teach FreeCAD, four of our students have been working together to create tutorials for the government students. All of the tutorials are connected to each other, showing how to use FreeCAD and how to create things step by step. All tutorials are given in Khmer and are about 5 minutes long. To accomplish our works, we have to identify our challenges, our curriculum experiment and feedback that we get from our users.

4.2.2 Challenges

It was really difficult for us to create FreeCAD tutorials in the Khmer language, especially finding understandable words that match with the English version. Furthermore, we are not experts on using FreeCAD and the software is in English, but we have to do the tutorials in Khmer. We also find it hard to make the tutorials to the correct difficulty for government school students, who don’t have any experiences with computers. It is a challenge for them to learn to do it on their own without any guidance.


Another problem that we have is from recording and editing the videos. Sometimes, we talked too loud or too low in the videos, the microphones were not working or our software Audacity, was not recording. These are the challenges for us, but we have already overcome these challenges with teamwork and support from each other.

4.2.3 Teacher Engagement

According to our experiment with the government students, students found it’s really difficult to follow these tutorials. In each video, they need at least a little help from the others. We’re looking forward to meet with the teachers, and share our experiences with them in order to fill them with confidence so that they can advise their students because we believe that the students will be more comfortable with their own teachers.


5. Computer Lab Hardware  

For the computer labs, we need to use hardware that uses low power consumption and is capable of the softwares that we want to teach, and is also inexpensive.  The less power the computer lab uses the smaller solar system in needs to be. This means that low power consuming devices are a priority in our device choice. Because of this we have chosen the following computer hardware.

Figure 1 : Davith tried the new Computer hardware after setting up.


5.1 Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry pi is a small size computer originally designed to teach computer science in schools and developing countries [4]. The Raspberry Pi is slower than a modern laptop or desktop but is still a complete Linux computer that can provide all the capabilities that we need, at a low-power consumption level and severely reduced cost.  This is ideal for our computer lab  since we are using a solar system as our source of electricity.  The less energy we consume, the smaller the solar system needs to be.

Figure 2 : Raspberry model 3 referring to [5]


5.2 Lower Power Consuming Screen

Since we are using a 12V system, all the devices used must have 12V power input.  Because of this we had to find a computer screen that is able to be powered by 12V.  This is a challenge as it is quite rare to find displays like this.  One source for a 12V display was found from NRG Solar Solutions.  They provide a NIWA 19.5” 12V LCD screen with HDMI input (figure 3).  We need HDMI input since the output of the Raspberry Pi is HDMI.  Although the display is more expensive than conventional displays, it uses much less power at an average power usage of 10W.

Figure 3 : NIWA TV screen when we first setting up.

5.3 Networking Hardware

Our networking software PiNet calls for wired networking, therefore in order to connect all the 23 computers with the server, we need a 24 port network switch [5].The battery consumption of the network switch that we are using is 11.56 watts.

5.4 Server Computer

In order to run this computer lab in the network we need to have a computer that will act as a server. This computer needs to be able to run in a 12 V system and has a very low power consumption. This computer needs to be able to run the PiNet server on Ubuntu OS and has a suitable hard drive size to support the network [6]. Details of this computer are listed below in table [F].


5.5 Prototyping Process

In order to test our idea, we  bought a set of components including a raspberry pi, Niwa screen (figure 3), 12v battery, charge controller, network switch and a solar panel. In the process of prototyping our project we were trying to measure the energy consumed by the system while using FreeCAD software running on the raspberry pi. Our prototypes were a success, we have found out the best angle that maximize the energy produced by the solar panel and tested the FreeCAD software.


Figure 4 : Davith and Maya were working together on figuring out how to use FreeCAD on Raspberry Pi computer [2]

6. Wiring of the Lab

Since we are going to install 22 computers and a server into the government school we must consider how the lab will be wired.  The things that need to be considered when wiring the lab are the power lines connecting the power from the solar panel system to all of the loads that will use the electricity, the power lines that will provide power to the  lighting, conduit to reduce exposure of power lines and network cables to route to each computer.


Figure 5 : Illustration showing how the the old system setup

6.1 Overview of Solar Power Distribution.

  1. The solar panel that generates power from sunlight will transfer the energy into the battery(figure 7) via the charge controller.
  2. All the things that are needed to run the computer lab are connected to the charge controller such as solar panels, batteries and the loads. The load in this instance are the computer lab devices (figure 6).
  3. The charge controller will prevent overcharging and protects against overvoltage.
  4. The voltage of the electricity will get converted by the buck converter from 12v to 5v for the Raspberry Pi.


Figure 6 : Niwa screen that is connected with the Raspberry Pi and Charge Controller. Figure 7 : The 12V battery that stores the energy which is generated from the solar panel.


7. Solar Power generating system

A solar panel is a device that captures the sun energy and converts it to electricity. The more sunlight hits the cell of the solar panel, the more electricity it could produce. We are using the solar panel because it is not affecting the environment negatively, compared to burning fossil fuels. Cambodia is a good location for solar panels since it has a tropical climate with an abundance of sun. Moreover, there is a lack of electricity source in Cambodia’s government school.


Figure 8 : The solar panel that capturing the sun energy.

7.1. Solar Panel Sizing

The size of the solar power generating system depends on many different factors. In order to install these labs and determine the size of the solar panels, we have to know which part of Cambodia the labs will be installed in and how much power will be consumed. If we install somewhere that does not have enough sun exposure, our labs will not work. Also, if our appliances use a lot of power than what the solar system can support our lab will not work.


For this system sizing, we were divided it into other two smaller sections.This split will focus on the solar power that we need to run the whole computer lab for 4 hours and 8 hours a day. To determine the size of system that we are going to use, our team had created spreadsheet; Design System of Solar, to do all the calculation for us. We also looked at Inveneo Solar Deployment Guide, which has  guided us through steps by steps of the sizing solar panel process.  First, we have to calculate the power consumption of all the devices in the computer lab.  This then enables us to calculate the battery consumptions of all the required supplies. Then, we have to calculate the battery capacity of those supplies and lastly, we need to calculate how many solar panels do we need to charge those batteries.

7.2. Sizing Sheet Used for Different Period

7.2.1 4 Hours of Running

After doing all the calculations of all the supplies that are needed for

the whole lab to work well for 4 hours we had a number of the battery consumption that was needed. As the table shown in Appendices 3, we see that for 4 hours of running the lab, we will need the battery consumption of 1532 watts. The next step is to calculate the battery capacity of that battery consumption which we had come up with the estimated number of batteries is 4-5 batteries. From those result, we can now use it to find how many solar panels do we need to run this 4 hours computer lab. As result, we need 6 or 7 solar panels to run the whole system.

7.2.1 8 Hours of Running

To calculate the solar panels that we need, we did the same step as 4 hours of running. To begin this process, we need to calculate the battery consumption of the 8 hours running which we come up with 4720 watts. Then, we have to calculate the battery capacity to know how many batteries to run those supplies and as result, we come up with 10-11 batteries. Lastly, as we know how many batteries that we will need to calculate to find how many solar panels power to charge those batteries and what we got is 10-11 solar panels.


8. Network Software to be Used

In order to have an easy management system of the computer lab, all the Raspberry Pi’s must be connected together onto a network.  In order to do this we have decided to use  the PiNet network management system.  We are using PiNet because the student’s user accounts are stored on the central PiNet server. This means they can log in on any Raspberry Pi in the classroom and we do not need to buy many SD cards for everyone in the public school. In addition, it is easy to set up the shared folders to share resources with students.


Figure 9 : This is a model of our network management system.


9. School Engagement

Figure 10 : We are testing student how to use FreeCAD.


Our goal is to implement the computer labs into public schools that can not get access to electricity. To accomplish this goal, we have to find out which schools we are going to implement into, then figure out their learning curriculum. Furthermore, we have to have a better understanding of the spaces that are going to be needed for this system. Currently, we have not found out which schools we are going to implement the lab yet but we hope to meet with the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport soon. We also have to know the number of the students that will be using the computers before as well as the students who never knew it before.


The teacher’s ability is also one of the main points that we should check with before we implement the labs.  We want the teachers to be clear and confident to teach the new system to their students. Our purpose of this curriculum is not to make the student become the master of computers but we want the students to know what it feels like to use computers that are running by the sun energy.  We also want to introduce some of the programs that might help them study such as FreeCAD, Edemy, Khan Academy, Wikipedia, and many others. Before handing out the computer lab, we are going to test out the student’s ability by bringing our first sample of Raspberry Pi Lab with FreeCAD tutorials to Chbar Ampov High school.

10. Stakeholders

10.1. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport

Since we are going to implement the system into the government school, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport is the main partner to help us contacting them. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport will have more power than us to influence the school of the new program that we’re introducing to them.

10.2 Chbar Ampov High School

Chbar Ampov High School is our place for testing our curriculum. We want to find out about how familiar the students are with computers and their behavior. We visited the school two times to try out our tutorials and Raspberry Pi software. Furthermore, we are planning to visit them again in the future in order to see how much they understand if we give them an assignment to do as well as introducing them to FreeCAD and Raspberry Pi to the IT teachers.

Figure 11 : Two students were exploring the new computer and other software including Free Cad and Scratch.

10.3 Edemy

Our project will work closely with Edemy. We will use their education platform as our primary education curriculum. Edemy will teach us how to collect data and keep track of the student’s works and knowledge that they have gained from our project.

10.4 NRG Solutions

NRG is a company who design, install, distribute, and service a wide variety

of solar products in both rural and urban Cambodia. We are using their services to provide the solar system and computer screen.. We also had visited their websites several times to check out the lowest cost of each solar device and other equipment that we are going to use to run our lab.


11. Costs

The price will go up or down depending on the power consumption of the products. If the products have high power consumption, we will need to increase the size of the solar panel system, in order to create more electricity for the computer lab. The cost of the computer lab also depends on how long the school uses the computers. The more hours used of the computer lab, the larger solar panels will be needed to implement for the our computer lab. Furthermore, the cost of the computer lab will reduce or increase depend on how many users are there in the school and the quality of the product that we are using. Reference to appendix “A” and “B”, which show details about the system cost and the design system of the solar respectively.


12. Fundraising

Our project will need to do fundraiser to be able to implement the Solar Powered Computer Lab program for the government school. As we estimated the price for this project is about $30,000. Refer to the cost sheet in appendix “A” for the cost of the whole lab. Our project timeline is referenced to the Gantt Chart sheet in appendix “E”.



13. Conclusion

In conclusion with all the things that we have done and the collaborative works from other people or companies we would be able to successfully implement the Solar Powered Computer Lab in one of the government schools. Moreover, this project would be open to more possibilities of changes in the future of Cambodian student’s education.


14. Recommendation

We are planning to continue another exploration next year in order to finish the recommendations that are listed below. These are the areas that we need to complete in the sight of success in this project.


Before installation

  • Figure out the school to install in
    • Figure computer literacy level would be non-existent
  • Who is going to wire up the lab? (Connection from solar system to room)
  • Need to confirm the networking software to be used
  • Need to build the server computer
  • Need to make Edemy software compatible with Raspberry Pi
  • Undervoltage issues need to be addressed
  • Need to engage with teachers to make sure they are comfortable supporting the curriculum
  • Get supplies for installation into school


  • Need to have explanation of how to use the computer (how display the tutorials)
  • Create video of usage of hardware
  • Understand FreeCAD on a deeper level before creating video
  • Need to use correct Khmer words and using OBS software


After installation

  • Feedback of effectiveness of the lab and curriculum


15. Reference

[1] S. Kotler, “The 4 Forces of Abundance: Why the Future Is Better Than You Think,” The Huffington Post, Feb-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-May-2017].


[2] E., “Online and Offline Blended English Education,” Edemy. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-May-2017].


[3] “Welcome!,” FreeCAD: An open-source parametric 3D CAD modeler. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-May-2017].


[4] “Teach, Learn, and Make with Raspberry Pi,” Raspberry Pi. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-May-2017].


[5] A. Industries, “Adafruit Raspberry Pi B  / Pi 2 / Pi 3 Case – Smoke Base,” adafruit industries blog RSS. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jun-2017].


[6] “NETGEAR ProSAFE 8-Port Gigabit Ethernet Desktop Switch (GS108NA) | Staples®,” [Online]. Available:” [Accessed: 06-Jun-2017].


[7] P. N. team, “PiNet, a centralised user accounts and file storage system for a Raspberry Pi classroom.,” PiNet, a centralised user accounts and file storage system for a Raspberry Pi classroom. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jun-2017].[5]


[8] A. Industries, “Adafruit Raspberry Pi B  / Pi 2 / Pi 3 Case – Smoke Base,” adafruit industries blog RSS. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 06-Jun-2017].


16. Appendices

Appendix A : Cost sheet for one lab (intention to install two labs)


Supplies Cost per unit Quantity Total Cost
Each Work Station      
NIWA TV $169.35 22 $3,725.70
Raspberry Pi 3 $35.00 22 $770.00
Case for RPi $4.50 22 $99.00
MicroSD Cards (Small size) $7.00 22 $154.00
HDMI cables $7.00 22 $154.00
Buck converter to DC Jack for ODROID $7.99 22 $175.78
Dell Keyboard and mouse $12.00 22 $264.00
Headphones $2.50 22 $55.00
Network Cables from Pi to network Switch $3.00 23 $69.00
For whole lab      
Solar System(before testing) $6,690 1 $6,690
12V 5W LED bulbs $6.99 5 $34.95
Room wiring $1,000.00 1 $1,000.00
TP-Link SG1024 $85.00 1 $85.00
ODROID-HC1 : Home Cloud One $49.00 1 $49.00
HDD 2.5 7200rpm SATA III 1TB $65.00 1 $65.00
Buck converter 12V to 5V/4A $10.50 1 $10.50
    PARTS TOTAL $13,400.93
    SHIPPING TOTAL $102.91
    Oversight Cost $1,500.00
    TOTAL $15,003.84

Appendix B : Design System of Solar

Supplies Quantity Battery Consumption (1PC) (Watts) Battery Consumption (23PC) (Watts) Total Battery Consumption per 4 hrs (Wh) Total Battery Consumption (8h) (Wh)
NIWA TV and Phone Charger 23 9 207 828 1656
Raspberry Pi with case and heatsink 23 5 115 460 920
Buck converter for RPi 23 0.5 11.5 46 92
Keyboard 23 0.25 5.75 23 46
Mouse & Mouse Pad 23 0.25 5.75 23 46
Ceiling Light 5 5 25 100 200
Fan     0 0 0
Room wiring     0 0 0
Projector?     0 0 0
Network Switch (low power) (1000Mbit input minimum) 1 13 13 52 104
Low power computer to act as server for PiNet 1   0 0 0
TOTAL     383 1532 4720


Appendix C : Sizing sheet used for different period

BATTERY CAPACITY 4 Hr System 8 Hr System
Minimum Watt-hours per day during isolation peak 1532 3540
Extra margin for inefficiency/losses (10% loss) (Wh) 1685.2 3894
Compensation factor for temps as low as 22 deg (25 deg-22deg) (Wh) 1735.756 4010.82
Battery capacity needed divided by maximum allowed discharge percentage (50%) (Wh) 2603.634 6016.23
Battery capacity at 12V (Ah) 216.9695 501.3525
Estimated number of batteries (50Ah batteries) 4.33939 10.02705
Calculate minimum total battery which will charge per day (Wh) 2082.9072 4812.984
Power needed for the equipment during the insolation peak (Wh) 1532 3540
Total needed for operation and battery charging (Wh) 3614.9072 8352.984
Power output tolerance factor from datasheet (Wh) 3795.65256 8770.6332
Compensation factor for local temperatures as high 40 degrees 0.075 0.075
Temperatures factor (Wh) 4080.326502 9428.43069
Divide by insolation value (from map) to find total power need (W) 1020.081626 1571.405115
Calculate the number of panel needed (150W Panels) 6.80054417 10.4760341
Round up to give higher reliability, or down to lower cost 6 or 7 10 or 11


Appendix D : Gantt Chart

Project Name 25/4/2017 01/04/2017 08/05/2017 15/05/2017 22/05/2017 29/05/2017 05/06/2017
Introduction to problems of labs all around the world              
Installing software on Pi              
Building prototype solar system.              
Talking to Kagnarith (Edemy)              
Going to Chbar Ampov High School              
Testing power consumption              
Developing CAD tutorials              
Writing up feasibility report              
Prepare for sharation